(Cosmic Dream, personal communication, January 27, 2024)

This chart provides a comprehensive overview of the key considerations and examples of how they might be applied in an academic context. It's important to note that the application of these considerations can vary based on specific circumstances and jurisdiction.

Consideration Description Example
Fair Use Doctrine Allows limited use of copyrighted materials without permission for specific purposes. Factors considered include purpose, nature, amount used, and market effect. Using a small portion of a copyrighted painting in a classroom presentation for critique or discussion.
Educational Exceptions Some countries offer exceptions for educational use, but these vary. A teacher in the UK using copyrighted images in a classroom under the UK's educational exception rules.
Creative Commons Licenses Images under Creative Commons can be used without explicit permission, following the license terms. Using an image licensed under CC BY-NC (Attribution-NonCommercial) for a non-commercial academic paper.
Public Domain Public domain works can be used freely, but determining public domain status may depend on various factors. Utilizing a 19th-century artwork image in a research paper, as it is in the public domain.
Institutional Policies Academic institutions may have specific policies regarding the use of copyrighted materials. A university allows the use of certain copyrighted images on its internal network for educational purposes.
Permissions and Licensing Necessary to obtain permission for images not in the public domain or covered by fair use or a suitable Creative Commons license. Paying a fee to use a copyrighted photograph in an academic journal.
Attribution and Citation Proper attribution and citation are required when using images, even under fair use or educational exceptions. Citing the source and author of an image used in a thesis, even though it’s used under fair use.
Digital Rights Management (DRM) DRM can limit how digital images are used or shared. Being unable to copy or print an image for a classroom presentation due to DRM restrictions.
Risk Assessment In ambiguous cases, assess the risk of legal issues. Consulting legal experts or institutional policies is advisable. Deciding to use a copyrighted image in a presentation after assessing that it likely falls under fair use.
Alternatives Consider using alternative images if there's uncertainty about copyright. Opting for a royalty-free image instead of a copyrighted one for a research project.


Last modified: Saturday, 3 February 2024, 6:48 AM

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